Evaluation & Publications

Program evaluation has been an integral part of the Expect Respect® Program from its very beginning. Understanding the need to assess the impact of the program, program staff initially partnered with researchers from the University of Texas, School of Social Work to develop and refine evaluation methods. From 1997 – 2000, SafePlace received funding and technical assistance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for preventing dating violence by addressing bullying and sexual harassment in elementary schools (Rosenbluth, Whitaker, Valle, & Ball, 2010).

In 2003, the Expect Respect Program was one of four programs selected by the CDC to participate in an empowerment evaluation that aimed to build capacity for program improvement, manual development and evaluation and develop a knowledge base of evidence-based prevention efforts (Noonan & Gibbs, 2009).

The initial, qualitative evaluation focused on Expect Respect support groups for at-risk youth. Interviews with support group participants (Ball, Kerig, & Rosenbluth, 2007) indicated that groups were effective in increasing knowledge about warning signs of abuse and skills for healthy relationships. Participants described the importance of strong and authentic relationships among group members. These findings provided the impetus for strengthening the support group curriculum by focusing on active skill development within an emotionally safe and respectful group environment.

Expect Respect continued to refine survey instruments to quantify program outcomes of support groups. The preliminary, uncontrolled evaluation published in the Journal of Violence Against Women is a first step in demonstrating outcomes of this targeted, school-based dating violence prevention program (Ball, Tharp, Noonan, Valle, Hamburger & Rosenbluth, 2012).

Promising results laid the groundwork for a multi-year, controlled outcome evaluation of Expect Respect Support Groups funded by the CDC (manuscript under review).   We conducted a non-randomized controlled evaluation with over 1,600 participants in 36 schools. Baseline surveys were completed during the fall, wave 2 during the spring, and wave 3 during the fall of the following year.  Self-report measures included perpetration and victimization of controlling behaviors, psychological teen dating violence (TDV), physical TDV, sexual TDV, and reactive/ proactive aggression. For boys, the number of group sessions attended related to incremental declines in psychological, physical and sexual TDV victimization, psychological and sexual TDV perpetration, and reactive and proactive aggression. Among girls, attending  sessions was associated with incremental reductions in reactive and proactive aggression. Results suggest that Expect Respect Support Groups are an effective strategy to reduce peer aggression among high-risk adolescent boys and girls, and additionally reduce teen dating violence perpetration and victimization among boys. Expect Respect has the potential to decrease negative health and educational outcomes associated with aggression in peer and dating relationships. (Reidy, Holland, Cortina, Ball & Rosenbluth (2017) Evaluation of the expect respect support group program: A violence prevention strategy for youth exposed to violence. Journal of Preventive Medicine, 100 (2017) 235-242) 



Reidy,  D.E.,  Holland, K.M., Valle, Cortina, K., Ball, B., M.C., and Rosenbluth, B. (2017). 

             Evaluation of the Expect Respect support group program: A violence prevention strategy for youth exposed to violence.

             Journal of Preventive Medicine 100 (2017) 235 - 242 


Reidy,  D.E., Ball, B.,  Houry, D., Holland, K.M., Valle, L.A., Kearns, M.C., Marshall, K.J.

and Rosenbluth, B. (2016).  In Search of Teen Dating Violence Typologies. 

Journal of Adolescent Health 58 (2016) 202e207

Ball, B., Holland, K., Marshall, K., Lippy, C., Jain, S., Souders, K. and Westby, R. (2015).

Implementing a Targeted Teen Dating Abuse Prevention Program:

Challenges and Successes Experienced by Expect Respect Facilitators.


Freeman, S.A., Rosenbluth, B.,& Cotton, L. (2012). Teen Dating Abuse:

Recognition and Interventions. NASN School Nurse published

online 14 December 2012.


Ball, B., Teten, A., Noonan, R., Valle, L., Hamburger, M. & Rosenbluth, B. (2012) Expect

Respect Support Groups: Preliminary Evaluation of a Dating Violence Prevention

Program for At-Risk Youth. Violence Against Women published online 7 August


Ball, B. & Rosenbluth, B. (2010). Where Teens Live: Taking an Ecological Approach to

Dating Violence Prevention. In L. Lockhart & F. Danis (Eds.). Domestic Violence:

Intersectionality and Culturally Competent Practice, pp. 369-399. New York:

Columbia University Press.


Rosenbluth, B., Whitaker, D., Valle, L.A., & Ball, B. (2010). Integrating Strategies for

Bullying, Sexual Harassment and Dating Violence Prevention: The Expect

Respect Elementary School Project. In D. Espelage and S. Swearer (Eds.).

Bullying in North American Schools. New York: Taylor and Francis.


Teten, A. L., Ball, B., Valle, L.A., Noonan, R., & Rosenbluth, B. (2009). Considerations

for the Definition, Measurement, Consequences, and Prevention of Dating

Violence Victimization among Adolescent Girls. Women’s Health, 18(7), 932 –



Ball, B., Kerig, P. & Rosenbluth, B. (2009). “Like a Family But Better Because You Can

Actually Trust Each Other.” The Expect Respect Dating Violence Prevention

Program For At-Risk Youth. Health Promotion Practice, 45S-58S.


Clinton-Sherrod, A.M., Morgan-Lopez, A.A., Gibbs, D., Hawkins, S.R., Hart, L., Ball, B.,

Irvin, N., & Littler, N. (2009). Factors contributing to the effectiveness of four

school-based sexual violence interventions. Health Promotion Practice.


Noonan, R., Emshoff, J.G., Moos, A., Armstrong, M., Weinberg, J., Ball, B. (2009).

Adoption, adaptation, and fidelity of implementation of sexual violence

prevention programs. Health Promotion Practice.


Ball, B., Rosenbluth, B., Randolph, R., & Aoki, A. (2010). Expect Respect Program

Manual: Overview; Support Group Curriculum and Facilitator Guide;

SafeTeens Youth Leadership Curriculum and Facilitator Guide; School-Wide

Prevention Strategies. Austin, TX: SafePlace.


Meraviglia, M., Becker, H., Rosenbluth, B., Sanchez, E., & Robertson, T. (2003). The

Expect Respect Project: Creating a Positive Elementary School Climate. Journal of

Interpersonal Violence, 18 (11), 1347-1360.


Sanchez, E, Robertson, T, Lewis, C., Rosenbluth, B., Bohman, T., & Casey, D. (2001).

Preventing Bullying and Sexual Harassment in Elementary Schools: The Expect

Respect Model. In R. Geffner, M.Loring, & C. Young (Eds.). Bullying Behavior:

Current Issues, Research, and Interventions. Haworth Maltreatment & Trauma

Press. Co-published simultaneously as Journal of Emotional Abuse, 2, (2/3), 157-



Rosenbluth, B. (1996/2004). Expect Respect: A Support Group Curriculum for Safe and

Healthy Relationships. Austin, TX: SafePlace.


Berkowitz, A.; Jaffe, P.; Peacock, D.; Rosenbluth, B., & Sousa, C. (2004). Young Men as

Allies in Preventing Violence and Abuse: Building Effective Partnerships with

Schools. Family Violence Prevention Fund’s Building Partnerships to End Men’s

Violence: Online Discussion Series.


Rosenbluth, B., Sanchez, E., Whitaker, D. J., & Valle, L. A. (2004) The Expect Respect

Project: Preventing Bullying and Sexual Harassment in Elementary Schools. In P.

Smith, D. Pepler, & K. Rigby (Eds.). Bullying in Schools: How Successful Can

Interventions Be? Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.


Whitaker D.J., Rosenbluth, B., Valle, L.A., & Sanchez, E. (2004). Expect Respect: A

School-based Intervention to Promote Awareness and Effective Responses to

Bullying and Sexual Harassment. In Bullying in American Schools. In D.L Espelage

& S. M. Swearer (Eds.). A Social-Ecological Perspective on Prevention and

Intervention, pg. 327-350. New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


Rosenbluth, B. & Peacock D. (2003). Date SMART Program Guide. Boys and Girls Clubs

of America.


Rosenbluth, B. (2002). Expect Respect: A School-based Program Promoting Safe and

Healthy Relationships for Youth. Harrisburg, PA: National Resource Center on

Domestic Violence.


Rosenbluth, B. (2001). Love—All That and More: A Six-Session Curriculum & 3-Video

Series On Healthy Relationships For Youth & Young Adults. Seattle, WA: Center

for the Prevention of Sexual and Domestic Violence.